Shakespeare's Plays Before the publication of the First Folio innineteen of the thirty-seven plays in Shakespeare's canon had appeared in quarto format.
She has lost contact with her twin brother, Sebastian, whom she believes to be drowned and with the aid of the Captain, she disguises herself as a young man under the name Cesario, and enters the service of Duke Orsino.
Duke Orsino has convinced himself that he is in love with Olivia, who is mourning the recent deaths of her father and brother. She refuses to see entertainments, be in the company of men, or accept love or marriage proposals from anyone, the Duke included, until seven years have passed.
Duke Orsino then uses 'Cesario' as an intermediary to profess his passionate love before Olivia. Olivia, however, falls in love with 'Cesario', setting her at odds with her professed duty.
In the comic subplot, several characters conspire to make Olivia's pompous steward, Malvolio, believe that Olivia has fallen for him. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew engage themselves in drinking and revelry, thus disturbing the peace of Olivia's household until late into the night, prompting Malvolio to chastise them.
Sir Toby famously retorts, "Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale? They convince Malvolio that Olivia is secretly in love with him by planting a love letter, written by Maria in Olivia's handwriting.
It asks Malvolio to wear yellow stockings cross-gartered, to be rude to the rest of the servants, and to smile constantly in the presence of Olivia. Malvolio finds the letter and reacts in surprised delight. He starts acting out the contents of the letter to show Olivia his positive response.
Olivia is shocked by the changes in Malvolio and agreeing that he seems mad, leaves him to be cared for by his tormentors. Pretending that Malvolio is insane, they lock him up in a dark chamber.
Feste visits him to mock his insanity, both disguised as a priest and as himself. Meanwhile, Viola's twin, Sebastian, has been rescued by Antonio, a sea captain who previously fought against Orsino, yet who accompanies Sebastian to Illyria, despite the danger, because of his affection for Sebastian.
Sebastian's appearance adds the confusion of mistaken identities to the comedy. Taking Sebastian for 'Cesario', Olivia asks him to marry her, and they are secretly married in a church.
Finally, when 'Cesario' and Sebastian appear in the presence of both Olivia and Orsino, there is more wonder and confusion at their physical similarity. At this point, Viola reveals her identity and is reunited with her twin brother.
The play ends in a declaration of marriage between Duke Orsino and Viola, and it is learned that Sir Toby has married Maria.
Malvolio swears revenge on his tormentors and stalks off, but Orsino sends Fabian to placate him. Setting[ edit ] Illyriathe exotic setting of Twelfth Night, is important to the play's romantic atmosphere. Illyria was an ancient region of the Western Balkans whose coast the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea which is the only part of ancient Illyria which is relevant to the play covered from north to south the coasts of modern-day SloveniaCroatiaBosnia and HerzegovinaMontenegroand Albania.
It included the city-state of the Republic of Ragusa which has been proposed as the setting. The names of most of the characters are Italian but some of the comic characters have English names.
It has been noted that the play's setting also has other English allusions such as Viola's use of "Westward ho! It is conjectured that the name of its male lead, Orsino, was suggested by Virginio Orsini, Duke of Braccianoan Italian nobleman who visited London in the winter of to It was originally a Catholic holiday and therefore, like other Christian feast days, an occasion for revelry.
Servants often dressed up as their masters, men as women and so forth. This history of festive ritual and Carnivalesque reversal, based on the ancient Roman festival of Saturnalia at the same time of year characterized by drunken revelry and inversion of the social order; masters became slaves for a day, and vice versais the cultural origin of the play's gender confusion-driven plot.
The actual Elizabethan festival of Twelfth Night would involve the antics of a Lord of Misrulewho before leaving his temporary position of authority, would call for entertainment, songs and mummery ; the play has been regarded as preserving this festive and traditional atmosphere of licensed disorder.
Subtitles for plays were fashionable in the Elizabethan eraand though some editors place The Merchant of Venice 's alternative title, The Jew of Venice, as a subtitle, this is the only Shakespearean play to bear one when first published.
A law student, John Manningham, who was studying in the Middle Temple in London, described the performance on 2 February Candlemas which took place in the hall of the Middle Temple at the formal end of Christmastide in the year's calendar, and to which students were invited.
The play was not published until its inclusion in the First Folio in Gender[ edit ] Viola is not alone among Shakespeare's cross-dressing heroines; in Shakespeare's theatre, convention dictated that adolescent boys play the roles of female characters, creating humour in the multiplicity of disguise found in a female character who for a while pretended at masculinity.
She does not, however, use her disguise to enable her to intervene directly in the plot unlike other Shakespearean heroines such as Rosalind in As You Like It and Portia in The Merchant of Veniceremaining someone who allows "Time" to untangle the plot. As the very nature of Twelfth Night explores gender identity and sexual attraction, having a male actor play Viola enhanced the impression of androgyny and sexual ambiguity.
V she asks her "Are you a comedian? He finishes by likening himself to "the old Vice" of English Morality plays. The only record of the performance is an entry in the diary of the lawyer John Manninghamwho wrote: A good practice in it to make the steward believe his lady-widow was in love with him, by counterfeiting a letter as from his lady, in general terms telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel, etc.
Act V, Scene i William Hamiltonc. The play was also one of the earliest Shakespearean works acted at the start of the Restoration ; Sir William Davenant 's adaptation was staged inwith Thomas Betterton in the role of Sir Toby Belch.Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around – as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season.
The play centres on the twins Viola and Sebastian, who are separated in a leslutinsduphoenix.com (who is disguised as Cesario) falls in love with Duke Orsino, who in turn is in love with the Countess Olivia. William Shakespeare is widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the English language.
Discover more about him on the British Library website. What did Shakespeare write? The first collected edition of Shakespeare's plays, the First Folio, was collated and published in , seven years after the playwright’s death.
Of the 36 Died: Apr 23, Shakespeare wrote many more than 5 plays. In fact, 37 plays have been published by him. Some include a Midsummer Night's Dream, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, The Twelfth Night, Othello, King Lear, The.
Next: Macbeth, Act 5, Scene 6 Explanatory Notes for Act 5, Scene 5 From leslutinsduphoenix.com Thomas Marc Parrott. New York: American Book Co. (Line numbers have been altered.) _____ In this scene more perhaps than in any other of the play the poet arouses our sympathy for Macbeth.
Though scholars disagree about the exact number of plays William Shakespeare wrote, he definitely wrote at least 37 plays. Some of these plays were collaborations, though the exact number of collaborations is unclear. Some plays, such as "The Two Noble Kinsmen," are definitely collaborative texts.
What Types of Plays Did Shakespeare Write? Shakespearean Tragedies, Comedies, Histories, and Problem Plays.