When Bulgaria proclaimed its independence from the Ottoman Empire on 22 Septemberits status was promoted to that of a kingdom and Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria assumed the title of tsar.
When Bulgaria proclaimed its independence from the Ottoman Serbia in ww1 on 22 Septemberits status was promoted to that of a kingdom and Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria assumed the title of tsar. The country was now able Serbia in ww1 focus on completing its national unification by turning its attention toward the lands populated by Bulgarians that remained under Ottoman control.
To achieve its goals, the Bulgarian government, under Prime Minister Ivan Geshovapproached the governments of the other Balkan countries in hopes of creating an alliance directed against the Ottomans. His efforts culminated in a series of bilateral treaties concluded in to form the Balkan League.
By summer of the same year, Ottoman grip on their Balkan provinces deteriorated rapidly in Albania and Macedonia, where open rebellions had erupted. Within a month, the Ottomans found themselves driven back by the Bulgarians to within 40 kilometers of Constantinople and badly beaten by the Serbians and the Greeks.
A major Ottoman counter-offensive was defeated by the Bulgarians, who also seized the fortress of Adrianople in March and finally forced the Ottoman Empire to admit defeat and return to the peace table. While the Bulgarian army was still fighting, a new challenge arose from the north: Romania demanded territorial compensations from Bulgaria in return for its neutrality during the war.
Geshov foresaw this outcome, which signalled the collapse of his goal of forming a permanent alliance directed against the Ottoman Empire, and resigned from his post as prime minister.
He was replaced by the hard-liner Stoyan Danev. Russia, which was viewed as the patron of the Balkan Leaguewas unable to control the situation and settle the disputes between the allies. The failure of Russian diplomacy, and the Entente Cordiale among Russia, France, and Great Britain that stood behind it, was a victory for Austria-Hungary, which sought to undermine the unity between the Balkan countries.
In June, the new Bulgarian government was asked by the Bulgarian General Staff to either take aggressive action or order demobilization within 10 days.
The senior Bulgarian commanders were concerned by the new alliance between Serbia and Greece and the growing restlessness in the army, which had been in the field since September Danev was preparing to leave for Russia where a new attempt to solve the problem was made by Tsar Ferdinand and General Mihail Savovwho decided to make a demonstration to Serbia, Greece and the Entente by ordering two of the Bulgarian armies to attack and consolidate their positions in Macedonia on 16 June.
The Serbians and Greeks, however, were not willing to let this opportunity pass and declared war on Bulgaria. The Romanian forced met with almost no resistance and was soon followed by the Ottoman Empirewhich restored its control over Eastern Thrace. The eruption of this Second Balkan War tore a rift in the relations between Bulgaria and Russia and led to the downfall of the Danev government amidst the news of Bulgarian defeats in the field.
A new liberal coalition government under Vasil Radoslavov took control and immediately began seeking a diplomatic solution to the crisis, looking primarily towards Germany and Austria-Hungary for help. At the same time, the Bulgarian army managed to stabilize the Serbian and Greek fronts and even go on the offensive.
Bulgarian forces threatened to encircle the Greek army completely, but with the Romanians only a few kilometers from the Bulgarian capital of Sofia and the Ottomans in good position to invade the whole of southeastern Bulgaria, the warring countries concluded an armistice in July The Bulgarian delegation found itself in almost complete isolation, with only the partial support of Russia and Austria-Hungarywhich forced it to accept the coercive conditions of its opponents and sign the Treaty of Bucharest of The peace treaty with the Ottomans had to be dealt with on a bilateral basis.
Initially, the Bulgarian diplomacy maintained the position that the question about the possession of Adrianople and Eastern Thrace was an international matter resolved by the terms of the Treaty of London ofbut this line soon had to be abandoned due to the lack of support by the Great Powers and their unwillingness to pressure the Ottoman Empire.
The resulting Treaty of Constantinople of restored to the Ottomans most of the lands they had re-occupied during the Second Balkan War.
During the talks, the Radoslavov government for the first time sought to recover and strengthen the relations with the Ottomans by discussing an alliance directed against Serbia and Greece, but no concrete results were achieved at that point.
Prime minister from to The failed effort to bring all Bulgarians under a single national government led to a massive influx of overBulgarian refugees from Eastern Thrace and the parts of Macedonia that remained under Serbian and Greek rule.
Internal bickering within the People's Liberal Party one of the three governing coalition parties and the lack of a majority in parliament forced the dissolution of the legislative body. General elections were called for the pre-war borders of Bulgaria in November and held for the first time under nationwide proportional representation.
The government parties gained only 97 seats as compared to the seats of their opponents, which prompted a new resignation of the government in December. When the next elections were held in Marchthe population of the new territories was allowed to participate even though many participants had not yet received Bulgarian citizenship.
During the campaign, the spokesmen of the opposition parties were practically prevented from campaigning in these lands on the grounds of the alleged threat to their safety. Ottoman officials, however, were allowed to visit the local Muslim populations and urge them to vote for the government.
Despite these and other extreme measures, the liberal parties gained seats, as many as their opponents, and their numbers were increased by another 16 following the completion of the verification process. Radoslavov, however, remained handicapped by this fragile majority and was often forced to compromise with his coalition partners, falsify election results or simply neglect parliament.Timeline of Events from the Start of WW1 to Start of WW2 This Timeline is provided as a part of my Article: Part II, History of the World and of World War 2;.
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