Before insulin was available, most diabetic women were sterile, or, if they became pregnant, aborted.
The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes.
The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues.
Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision.
Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular symptoms and sexual dysfunction.
Patients with diabetes have an increased incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular, peripheral arterial, and cerebrovascular disease. Hypertension and abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism are often found in people with diabetes. The vast majority of cases of diabetes fall into two broad etiopathogenetic categories discussed in greater detail below.
In one category, type 1 diabetes, the cause is an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. Individuals at increased risk of developing this type of diabetes can often be identified by serological evidence of an autoimmune pathologic process occurring in the pancreatic islets and by genetic markers.
In the other, much more prevalent category, type 2 diabetes, the cause is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response.
In the latter category, a degree of hyperglycemia sufficient to cause pathologic and functional changes in various target tissues, but without clinical symptoms, may be present for a long period of time before diabetes is detected. During this asymptomatic period, it is possible to demonstrate an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism by measurement of plasma glucose in the fasting state or after a challenge with an oral glucose load.
The degree of hyperglycemia if any may change over time, depending on the extent of the underlying disease process Fig. A disease process may be present but may not have progressed far enough to cause hyperglycemia.
These individuals therefore do not require insulin. Other individuals who have some residual insulin secretion but require exogenous insulin for adequate glycemic control can survive without it.
The severity of the metabolic abnormality can progress, regress, or stay the same. Thus, the degree of hyperglycemia reflects the severity of the underlying metabolic process and its treatment more than the nature of the process itself.Diabetes: Definition, Causes and Symptoms What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin. Insulin is a hormone. diabetes mellitus An overview of diabetes mellitus and advances in treatment. HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder.
Oct 10, · The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is the most serious acute hyperglycemic emergency in patients with type 2 diabetes.
von Frerichs and Dreschfeld described the first cases of HHS in the s in patients with an “unusual diabetic coma” characterized by severe hyperglycemia and. DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES ] The REAL cause of Diabetes (Recommended) Skip to content its control management and even its clear!
Description Of Diabetes Define can be important exactly what is not about diabetes management. Description Of Diabetes When these clinical trials end the FDA reviews those trials and clears the drug to be.
WebMD explains the different types of diabetes -- type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. How to Start Exercising With Diabetes; Diabetes Management in 10 Minutes; diagnosis or treatment.
DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS. The information that follows is based largely on the reports of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes (Diabetes Care References ↵ The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: Report of the Expert Committee on the.