However, despite its frequent use, there is no consensus on how water scarcity should be defined or how it should be measured. Thus, a reference to water scarcity in one report may measure something different to other reports which use the same term. This can create confusion as to what exactly water scarcity means and lead to different answers to the question of which regions are under the most water stress.
For further information, please email us at asclibrary ascleiden. The World Bank recently concluded that, with the exception of Sub Saharan Africa SSAall the other regions were on track for meeting this water target. Achieving the MDG7 goal would be of huge economic benefit mainly due to savings in time and health benefits.
High spatial and temporal variations in rainfall Mean annual rainfall figures are comparable to those of other continents but evaporation rates are much higher in Africa and rainfall there is highly variable and unreliable.
Growing water scarcity 25 African countries will be water stressed by compared to 13 in Inadequate institutional and financing arrangements There is an ongoing debate about the commercialization of water management and water as an economic good versus decentralized community management and water as a human right.
Inadequate data and human capacity The inadequate collection, analysis and dissemination of data on water resources for developing, planning and implementing projects is problematic.
Inadequate development of water resources Water scarcity in Africa is not due entirely to natural phenomena but also to low levels of development and exploitation of water resources. Depletion of water resources by human actions The pollution of streams through industrial and agricultural activities, salinization due to overpumping, the drying out of wetlands, the eutrophication of lakes and the proliferation of invasive aquatic plants are all contributing to water shortages.
Byno fewer than 25 of the 48 countries that are expected to be facing water shortages will be African.
In addition to a growing population, agriculture will also be making added demands on water supplies. However, political, economic and institutional factors can and often do lead to water deprivation even in areas where resources are generally plentiful.
Commercial export agriculture is resulting in the drying up of water sources. On a continental basis, rainfall in Africa is about mm per year. This is comparable to Europe and North America but higher evaporation rates in Africa are resulting in substantially lower percentages of precipitation contributing to renewable water resources.
African rainfall patterns are also showing significant variations in place and time. In addition, temporal and regional variability is exacerbated by unpredictability.
Africa has 17 rivers with catchment areas greater than km2 and it has more than lakes larger than 27 km2, most of which are in the equatorial region and the sub-humid East African Highlands within the Rift Valley. Some argue that the potential for conflict among riparian countries has increased in recent years and is likely to intensify in the future as water scarcity increases.
Groundwater is extremely important in Africa. There has been a near ten-fold increase in the estimated cost of water-related infrastructure to support economic growth, food and energy securities and adaptations to climate change and hazard management.
Africans are facing increased water scarcity. Access to clean water and sanitation has been earmarked as the most crucial resource for life and for agriculture and industry. At the same time, water is expected to trigger new wars — some claim it already has — but it could also be a reason for countries and groups cooperating to prevent conflicts.
Agenda Feminist Media, “The average rainfall in South Africa is about millimetres per year (mm/annum). Our rainfall has a water supply potential per capita of just over 1 cubic metres per year (m3/annum” Johannesburg, which is in the North has wet summers and dry winters, while Cape Town experiences much of.
B. Osman-Elasha. Balgis Osman-Elasha is a Senior Researcher in the Climate Change Unit of the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources, Khartoum, the Sudan.. Strategies for sustainable development and climate change adaptation have many common elements, so addressing them jointly can create synergies.
The Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them. Africa, Asia, North American, Europe, South America and Australia have different levels of stress on river basins, so that basically means these places are already having fresh water shortage or have more risk to face fresh water shortage.
Africa has such a large number of people affected, it does not have the resources to purchase or purify water and it does not have enough money to find suitable sources of water. In conclusion, I believe that the water problem in Africa will be solved, but not for many, many years.
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